Trail Hardening

Another method used to "improve" the trail surface is the use of stones, sand, gravel, or rocks, as well as ditching the uphill side of the trail. This helps harden the surface and direct water away. This is a slightly modified version of "turnpike". Normally, turnpike has ditches on both sides, but since this trail is on a slope, only one ditch - on the upper side - was used. (These stones were too loose and have been mostly scattered by hikers since this photo was taken).